Along many parts of the Russia’s
coastline, tourism (if any) has developed in a haphazard
and unplanned fashion and causes major environmental
and social problems. Western and Russian tourist activity
significantly differ mainly in terms of infrastructure
development and objectives.
Russian leisure time is often spent
in nature, e.g. on natural beaches, and involves gathering
berries and mushrooms for winter, amateur fishery (recently
by inexpensive and effective monofilament nets) and
less often hunting (including in prohibited season).
These activities are deeply rooted in traditions and
Coastal code assessment
Assessment of the Coastal
Code approach in Northwest Russia included the issue
of sustainable tourism and was done in the framework
of a pilot project for integrated development of the
coastal zone of Kingisepp District (Leningrad Region).
It was implemented jointly by EUCC and Baltic Fund
for Nature (BFN). Sponsor of the project was the 1998
Pin-Matra programme of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture,
Nature Management and Fisheries.
The project determined
whether the guidelines proposed in the European Code
of Conduct for Coastal Zones are adequately reflected
in the existing strategic and development plans of
Main objectives of the
- Characterise the environment of the coastal zone;
- Analyse common practice and trends of coastal zone
- Assess the ecological status of coastal habitats
and biological communities and determine negative
- Select those approaches of the Coastal Code, which
are best suited to tackle problems related to biodiversity
loss in Kingisepp District;
Work out recommendations
on optimising the Coastal Code taking Russian specificities
Analysis of the situation
in Kingisepp District had shown that organised tourism
was developed poorly in the area.
Only 50% of Coastal Code guidelines had been applied
in management practices of Kingisepp District. In
particular, the following ones were not respected:
- Integrate sectoral development in coastal zone
- Non-development zones;
- Protected coastal land and seascapes;
- Realisation of polluter pays principle.
The most suitable areas
for development of tourism in the district are those
adjacent to the Gulf. Taking that into account, the
administration of the district took the decision to
construct a tourist complex at the shore of Narva
Bay. The projected area is 4,500 ha and its recreation
capacity is 50.000 person per day. The project will
require large investments from the local goverment.
Main difficulties of realising
Coastal Code principles in practice were formulated
- Recent economical difficulties in Russia;
- Lack of effective instruments for motivating inhabitants
and businesses to apply nature-friendly methods of
- Lack of traditions of environmentally
friendly behaviour among population.